The effects of antifreeze must be considered when sizing a radiator. The ability to transfer heat diminishes when water is mixed with ethylene glycol. The loss in ambient capability due to antifreeze is about 1.80F for each 10% glycol, up to 50%. So the higher the amount of ethylene glycol in a coolant mixture, the ability to transfer heat is greater. More water in the coolant mixture, the ability to transfer heat goes down.
Detonation (aka knocking) is when there is a second ignition of unburned fuel-air mixture before the combustion sequence has completed. The unburned portion of the mixture self-ignites, creating a sharp rise in pressure and localized high temperatures.
The recommended maintenance intervals for changing oil can be changed by a comprehensive maintenance management program that includes oil condition analysis. So basically you can analysis the engine’s oil and if it is being contaminated faster than normal, you can change the oil sooner than the regular service intervals. Given that nothing major showed up in the oil analysis.
Combustion Air Flow RequirementsCombustion air flow requirements will vary, depending on the specific engine model rating. Specific air flow data for Caterpillar engines is given in both volumetric [m3/min (cfm)] and mass [kg/hr (lb/hr)] flow terms, at standard reference conditions